Parul Singhal
ID
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Adreena Mittal
Ritvija Dixit
Department of Pathology, Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
Department of Pathology, Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Hapur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Department of Physiology, Amrita Medical College, Faridabad, Haryana, India
Received: 13.12.2023 / Revised: 7.02.2024 / Accepted: 13.02.2024 / Published: 30.06.2024

Abstract

Introduction and aim. Pancytopenia is the simultaneous presence of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. The aim of this work was to study the etiological spectrum of pancytopenia in the National capital region of India, and evaluate the relationship of pancytopenia with serum vitamin B12 levels.

Material and methods. This study is of a prospective and analytical type conducted on patients attending the outpatient and inpatient department of Santosh Medical College and the Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences tertiary care centers in NCR. Complete blood counts and peripheral blood smear examination was used for morphological classification and typing of anemia. Bone marrow aspiration and vitamin B12 estimation was performed where required.

Results. The maximum number of pancytopenia cases were etiologically attributed to megaloblastic anemia (64.2%) followed by aplastic anemia (19.8%). Malaria was attributed to 6.6% cases of pancytopenia. Iron deficiency anemia and tuberculosis both accounted for 1.9% of cases. each. A history of drug intake and mixed nutritional anemia each contributed to 2.8% of cases. Serum vitamin B12 levels showed a significant relationship with pancytopenic cases.

Conclusion. In our study, the main cause of pancytopenia is megaloblastic anemia which responds very well to treatment if diagnosed correctly in time. A detailed hematological assessment along with vitamin B12 levels should be evaluated in all cases of pancytopenia irrespective of the etiological categorization.

 

Cite

Singhal P, Mittal A, Dixit R. A study of etiological spectrum in 106 cases of pancytopenia. Eur J Clin Exp Med. 2024;22(2):370–375. doi: 10.15584/ejcem.2024.2.24.

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