Marimuthu Parasuraman Brundha
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Swarnalatha Raghunathan Raveendran
Narayanaswamy Rajeshkar
Department of Pathology, Madha Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
Department of Microbiology, Madha Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, India
Dr. Rai CBCC Cancer Centre, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
Received: 10 October 2022 / Revised: 14 November 2022 / Accepted: 16 November 2022 / Published: 25 March 2023


Introduction and aim. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) belongs to the cytokine family TNF/TNFR. As a multifunctional cytokine, TNF-α plays a significant role in diverse and a variety of cellular events such as cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and death. As a pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α acts as a bridge between inflammation and carcinogenesis. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) are cellular receptors belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. As one of the primary mediators of innate immunity, acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, and certain cancers, RAGE signaling plays an important role. The aim of the present study is to analyze the prognostic significance of salivary TNF-α and RAGE in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Material and methods. A study was conducted testing saliva samples collected from ten patients with well-differentiated and moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinomas. To determine the levels of TNF-α and RAGE in unstimulated saliva from patients, an ELISA kit from RAY BIOTECH was used for the study, and the readings were read at 450 nm. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Version 23 of SPSS was used to plot the standard curve. Statistical comparisons were done using Mann-Whitney U test and ROC analysis.

Results. Salivary TNF-α and RAGE in patients were considered to be induced by radiotherapy at a higher level in moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma when compared to well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus, there is an increase in the induced Salivary TNF-α and RAGE levels by radiotherapy with increase in the histological stages of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The statistical analysis also proved the same.

Conclusion. Hence salivary TNF-α and RAGE may be used as a biomarker for oral cancer to predict the prognosis.



Brundha MP, Raveendran SR, Rajeshkar N. Salivary tumour necrosis factor-alpha and receptor for advanced glycation end products as prognostic and predictive markers for recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma – a pilot study. Eur J Clin Exp Med. 2023;21(1):36– 43. doi: 10.15584/ejcem.2023.1.5.

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